DD2 - Study Design

A Multicentre Study To Investigate The Prevalence And Factors Associated With Depression In Chinese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
A study of 17 months
In Phase I, to confirm and compare the validity of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Clinical Epidemiological Scale for Depression (CESD) in predicting depression in Chinese T2D patients using the MINI as a gold standard.
Other questionnaires which measure personal and external factors, diabetes associated distress and anxiety, quality of life, mental wellness and self efficacy etc. will also be used to document possible predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors for depression in diabetes.
A random sample of 100 T2D patients will be recruited from 3 Diabetes Centres in Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Beijing who will complete a full set of questionnaires and structured clinical assessments using a web-based electronic portal.
In Phase II, to use a subset of the most informative questionnaires to document the rates of depression (diagnosed and undiagnosed) and cognitive-psychological-behavioral factors in a consecutive cohort of Chinese patients with T2D and its associations with metabolic control and psychological-behavioral factors.
In each of the 7 participating centres in Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing, 500 consecutive patients will undergo comprehensive clinical assessments for risk factors, complications and medications using the JADE e-portal, giving a total of 3500 patients.


For more information on this research project please refer to the clinicaltrials.gov website below:


Depression in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Associations with Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, and Poor Treatment Adherence. J Diabetes. 2014 Oct; doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12238.
Zhang Y, Ting RZ, Yang W, Jia W, Li W, Ji L, Guo X, Kong AP, Wing YK, Luk AO, Sartorious N, Morisky DE, Oldenburg B, Weng J, Chan JC; China Depression in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) Study Group.

Measuring depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in Hong Kong Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Affective Disorders 2013 Nov;151(2):660-666.
Zhang Y, Ting R, Lam M, Lam J, Nan H, Yeung R, Yang W, Ji L, Weng J, Wing YK, Sartorius N and Chan JCN.